Cook County Weed Reform Affects African Americans


It’s obvious that African-Americans in the U.S. are most likely to face arrest and jail time for possession of marijuana and other drugs regardless of there being no evidence that blacks use drugs at higher rates than whites. After the Chicago area’s leading prosecutor announced Monday that her office would stop pursuing small cannabis cases, local attorneys and marijuana reform activists said blacks are progressively benefiting from a nationwide trend that steers nonviolent drug culprits far from the life-upending experience of prison and toward treatment.

Anita Alvarez, the Cook County, Illinois, state’s attorney, said she would not prosecute low-level drug offenses, would dismiss misdemeanor cannabis cases, and instead divert nonviolent transgressors with addictions into social programs and medical treatment centers. “I believe we have to focus on the violent crime, and unfortunately we see the violent crime here in Cook County,” Alvarez stated Monday in an interview.

Few in Chicago’s legal community know the prospective effect of the policy shift better than freshly selected Cook County Public Defender Amy Campanelli, who has actually worked 28 years as a criminal defense attorney. In the Chicago area, where blacks account for about a quarter of the population but nearly three-quarters of all cannabis arrests, a lot of futures have been harmed needlessly by the present policy, she stated.

“I can not picture that it would not keep a few of them out of the prison permanently,” Campanelli said of the program during a phone interview. “But they have actually got to have a great social services company to be diverted to. I am willing to collaborate anytime with Anita Alvarez to help my customers avoid of prison.”

In Cook County, conviction for ownership of more than 30 grams of marijuana lugs a penalty of as much as 3 years in prison and a $25,000 fine. Even misdemeanor possession of 15 grams or less can upend a first-time transgressor’s life, Campanelli stated. It costs the county $143.70 day-to-day to house culprits in the Cook County Prison. Nonviolent drug offenders often lose their tasks in addition to their capability to apply for student and other federal loans, limiting financial chances and enhancing the possibility that they will go back to jail, she said.

In 2014 alone, Cook County district attorneys dealt with more than 15,000 misdemeanor cases, the Chicago Tribune reported. However ticketing by cops has actually minimized the variety of arrests, according to city and state officials.

Over the last five years, Cook County marijuana arrests amongst blacks have actually been more than double the figure for whites, according to Illinois’ criminal justice data company. While arrests among both races have decreased throughout that time, blacks have consistently made up about 70 percent of marijuana arrests in Cook County.

Cristin Evans, the spokeswoman for the Illinois Wrongdoer Justice Information Company, said statistics were unavailable for Hispanic arrests due to the fact that state police initially began collecting data for that group in January.

In 2012, Chicago took a step towards reducing imprisonment for small belongings by adopting a regulation allowing police to ticket somebody captured with as much as 15 grams of pot. The fines range from $250 to $500, however blacks were viewed as less likely to gain from ticketing because of a policing strategy that incentivizes getting transgressors in cops databases for use in future investigations, stated Dan Linn, executive director of the Illinois chapter of National Company for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Still, Linn said, “I see this as an excellent step. This fits into a more comprehensive narrative in the nation.”

Last year, the office of the district attorney for Brooklyn, New york city, shifted its position on prosecuting low-level marijuana cases. As in Chicago, blacks in New York City have actually been more likely to face arrest and prison time for belongings, according to a research by the National Study on Drug Abuse and Health. And legislators across the country have increasingly taken up legalization of medical marijuana and are debating decriminalization of low-level ownership.

“Huge cities like New York and Chicago have an impact on these concerns,” Linn stated, comparing the policy changes to the end of the alcohol Prohibition age. “When New York and Illinois did away with Prohibition, there was the domino effect that led to the [nationwide] repeal.”

4/20: The Blunt Truth About Marijuana & Taxes


There was a time when the term 4/20 drew either blank stares or giggles. The term, which refers to marijuana, has actually become more mainstream recently and April 20, as soon as thought about a counterculture vacation, is actually trending on Twitter. The truth is that cannabis doesn’t have the same taboo as it did previously. That’s mostly thanks to legalization.

Today, twenty-three states and the District of Columbia currently have laws legislating marijuana for either medical or recreational use. States which allow marijuana for medical use consist of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington– as well as the District of Columbia. Four states have actually legislated marijuana for recreational use including Alaska, Colorado, Oregon and Washington.

While states have actually been busy rewording their laws to legalize cannabis for either medical or recreational use, ownership of marijuana continues to be a federal crime. Under federal law, cannabis is still classified as a Schedule I drug meanings that it is illegal in any kind, including for medical purposes. It is, in fact, against federal law to grow, sell or utilize marijuana for any function.

Is that bound to alter whenever quickly? Likely not. Numerous potential GOP presidential prospects, including Jeb Bush, Ted Cruz, Rand Paul and Rick Perry have indicated that they would leave the choice up to the individual states while N.J. Governor Chris Christie has actually promised to crack down on marijuana entirely, calling it “a gateway drug.” Christie told conservative Iowa radio host Hugh Hewitt, “We have an enormous obsession problem in this nation. And we have to send very clear management from the White House on down through the federal police. Cannabis is an illegal drug under federal law. And the states should not be permitted to sell it and make money from it.”

For her part, Hillary Clinton, the potential Democratic candidate, informed Christiane Amanpour in 2014 that she would “wait and see” how the states fared before making it a nationwide issue. She did, nevertheless, side with Christie by calling cannabis a “gateway drug.”

The present President has avoided of the fray, choosing to pass the choice to Congress. Last month, President Obama stated, “We might have the ability to make some progress on the decriminalization side. At a specific point, if enough states wind up decriminalizing, then Congress may then reschedule marijuana.”

The lukewarm reading from politicians appears to echo the general population. According to a Gallup poll, since October 2014, just over half of Americans (51 %) favor legalization of marijuana.

While the feds have actually stayed steadfast, states that have relocated to legalize cannabis for medical factors have actually doinged this for fairly logical reasons: legislating the drug (like nicotine and alcohol) suggests that it can be managed. Regulations suggest control. And control is straight connected to the almighty dollar.

The drug industry– both legal and illegal– is rather a financially rewarding market. Keeping it unlawful, the argument goes, indicates that the most benefit circulations to invalid members of society: dealerships and cartels. On the other hand, taxpayers and government bear the burden of chasing those dragons as imprisonments for what are basically petty drug criminal offenses continue to increase: in 2012, information suggested that a $200 deal can cost society $100,000 for a three-year sentence.

It’s estimated that the legalization of marijuana (not just for medical functions) could take as much as $10 billion away from the cartels and dealers. And that’s not limited to the Colombian or Mexican drug trades. Domestically grown cannabis is thought to be the second most lucrative cash crop in the United States: only corn is thought about to be more lucrative.

To think of the kind of effect that could have on our economy, you require only seek to the united state beverage alcohol market. Making alcohol legal after Prohibition has settled. In 2010, the U.S. drink alcohol industry was considered responsible for over $400 billion in financial activity, generating almost $90 billion in earnings and over 3.9 million jobs. In 2012, the federal government gathered $9.7 billion in revenue from excise taxes on distilled spirits, beer, and wine: that number is anticipated to strike nearly $11 billion by 2020.

State and city governments are currently seeing the financial impact of the legalization of cannabis. Colorado drew in $2 million in taxes associated with the sale of leisure marijuana in January 2014 alone. Combined with taxes on sales from medicinal marijuana, the state pulled in nearly $3.5 million in pot-related tax revenue. If that trend continues, the state must have seen more than $40 million in added tax dollars by year end. To put that in point of view, that’s approximately 1 % of the total yearly budgets for Delaware, South Dakota, Montana or West Virginia.

So why will not the feds budge? Why not make it legal and tax it? Taxing it, some say, makes it legitimate. That would, the argument goes, open the floodgates to enhanced substance abuse, eventually moving from cannabis to stronger drugs like heroin and cocaine– the entire “gateway drug” argument that Christie and Clinton mentioned.

It was the taxation of marijuana in the 1930s which cause the criminalization of marijuana in the first place. At the early part of the 20th century, during Prohibition, booze was unlawful but marijuana was not. Under the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act, there was a two part tax on the sale of cannabis; one which worked like a sales tax and another which was more similar to an occupational tax for certified dealers. Infractions of the Act resulted in major consequences.

In 1969, Timothy Leary challenged his arrest for possession of marijuana under the Act; the case of Leary v. United States made it to the Supreme Court. The Court invalidated part of the Function as a violation of the Fifth Modification (versus self-incrimination). The result was a new law, the Controlled Substances Act, passed in 1970, which criminalized the possession or sale of marijuana. It has actually continued to be so to this day.

In 2009, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) released a memo (downloads as a pdf) to “offer explanation and guidance to federal district attorneys in States that have enacted laws authorizing the medical use of marijuana.” That memo revealed that federal law enforcement resources need to not target “people whose actions are in clear and unambiguous compliance with existing state laws offering the medical use of marijuana.” In other words, the feds assured (in numerous words) to keep their distances from managed sales of medical cannabis.

The IRS was mostly quiet on the issues until another 2011 when the DOJ released another memo (downloads as a pdf) apparently reversing course. That very same year, the Internal Revenue Service played hardball, prohibiting expenses for medical marijuana dispensaries. Their reason? Area 280E of the Tax Code which prohibits expenditures gotten in touch with the prohibited sale of drugs:

§ 280E. Expenditures in connection with the unlawful sale of drugs. No deduction or credit shall be allowed for any amount paid or sustained throughout the taxable year in continuing any trade or company if such trade or company (or the activities which consist of such trade or business) consists of trafficking in controlled substances (within the meaning of schedule I and II of the Controlled Substances Act) which is prohibited by Federal law or the law of any State in which such trade or company is performed.

Previously this year, however, the Internal Revenue Service released guidance that suggested it might be softening. Internal Revenue Service Memorandum 201504011 (downloads as a pdf), released on January 23, 2015, which revisited the reduction concern. The Memo didn’t reverse course on the reductions concern (it is, after all, a law on the books) but did suggest– by viewing of another Code section ( § 263)– that a mindful consideration as to the characterization of specific activities may result in legitimate decreases in tax.

Obviously, Congress could sort all this out by altering any of a variety of laws– from exactly what’s reported on Schedule I to clarifying how marijuana which is legal for state and local purposes might be dealt with for federal tax functions. Doing so might make them look soft on crime– not a risk that many are willing to take.

In the meantime, marijuana continues to be prohibited for federal functions. The feds appear to comprehend, nevertheless, that boldy pursuing legal medical cannabis sales– and the revenue generated for states and towns– will not make the dollars produced from those sales disappear. They just might not get reported.